Basic Measurement Conversions
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You will find that the recipes on this blog predominantly use grams and ounces for measurements. This is because these measurements are universal and give the most accurate and consistent results when it comes to baking.
For example, the weight of 1 US cup of granulated white sugar can vary from brand to brand, depending on the size of the granules. Even the weight of 1 US cup of flour can fluctuate depending on the protein content of the flour and how it’s actually being measured into the cup.
To avoid these inconsistencies, weighing ingredients is the best and easiest way to measure them.
All you need is a very basic and inexpensive kitchen scale, which is bound to be your best friend when it comes to baking.
I have however, provided measurement conversions (in terms of cups) below, but please note that these cup measurements are bound to be subjective, which may significantly impact the outcome of your baking.
I use predominantly grams (or ounces), but I do provide volume measurements for liquid measurements, and approximate volume measurements for some dry ingredients.
These are all approximate values. Some may be rounded to the nearest whole number.
US Liquid Measurements
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 128 fl ounces = 3.785 L
1 quart = 2 pints = 32 fl ounces = 0.94 L
1 pint = 2 cups = 16 fl oz = 473 mL
1 cup = 8 fl oz = 240 mL = 16 tbsp
1 tbsp = 3 tsp = 15 mL
1 tsp = 5 mL / 0.17 fl oz
Metric system / weight measurements
1 kg (kilogram) = 1000 g / 35.27 oz / 2.2 lbs
1 lb (pound) = 454 g (0.454 kg) / 16 oz
1/2 lb = 227 g / 8 oz
Measuring cups vs measuring jugs
There are two ways to measure volume measurements. You’ve got measurement cups, where you’ll find 1 cup, 1/2 cup, 1/3 cup and 1/4 cup measuring cups sold separately, or as a set.
You also have the measuring jugs, like pyrex jugs or plastic / silicone measuring jugs.
If you absolutely have to use cup measurements for your dry ingredients, please use the measuring cups.
Liquids can be measured using measuring jugs or cups. The cups can cause some spillage, so I prefer using measuring jugs for liquids.
Tips for using measuring jugs
ALWAYS check the measurements of the liquid by keeping the jug on a flat, stable surface, and then lower yourself, so that you are at EYE LEVEL with the liquid in the measuring jug.
Converting dry ingredient measurements from grams / oz to cups is going to create some variation. It can vary depending on how you fill the cup, the brand and size of the ingredients.
Another important tip – fluid ounces (fl oz) is NOT the same as ounces (oz).
1 cup of liquid is equal to 8 fl oz or 236 mL.
However, 1 cup of flour does not equal 8 oz in weight.
Measuring methods using measurement cups
Scoop & level method
This is where you would put your measuring cup straight into the flour (or any dry ingredient) and scoop up the flour to fill the cup. You may even tap the cup, or even use your fingers to swipe off excess, which can cause the flour to “pack into the cup”. You may even use the side of the bin to flatten the surface of the ingredients.
This method generally does not measure accurately or consistently. There are too many varying factors to give you consistent amounts each time. I highly recommend that you steer clear of this method.
Spooned & level method
This is what I recommend using. More consistent results each time. ALL the conversions on this blog use the spoon and level method (where applicable).
Fluff up your flour or dry ingredient with a spoon. Then spoon the flour / dry ingredient into the measuring cup. Do NOT tap the cup. Do NOT use the spoon to dig and pack. Spoon the flour into the measuring cup until the cup is overfilled.
Then take a flat spatula or the flat edge of a long knife, and swipe off the excess from the top.
Common ingredient measurement conversions.
Flour (spoon and level)
AP flour (all purpose flour) – 1 US cup = 125 g (4.40 oz)
Bread flour – 1 US cup = 127 g (4.48 oz)
Pastry flour / cake flour – 1 US cup = 110 g (3.8 oz)
Whole wheat flour – 1 US cup = 115 g (4 oz)
Cocoa powder (spoon and level)
Natural cocoa – 1 US cup = 76 g (2.7 oz)
Dutch cocoa – 1 US cup = 113 g (4 oz)
Cocoa powder can vary greatly depending on the brand. Always go by weight for consistent results.
White granulated sugar (scoop and level or spoon and level method. Either one is OK here) – 1 US cup = 200 g (7 oz)
Brown sugar (light or dark) – 1 US cup (lightly packed) = 200 – 210 g (7 oz)
Caster sugar – 1 US cup = 185 – 190 g (6.7 oz)
Confectioner’s sugar (spoon and level method) – 1 US cup = 113 – 115 g (4 oz)
Mini chocolate chips – 1 cup = 190 g (6.7 oz)
Regular chocolate chips – 1 cup = 180 g (6.30 oz)
Large chocolate chips – 1 cup = 170 g (6 oz)
Butter / fats
Butter – 1 cup = 226 g / 8 oz / 2 sticks (in north america)
Vegetable oil – 1 cup = 198 g / 7 oz / 240 mL
1 large egg = 56 g / 2 oz (with shell)
1 egg yolk (from large egg) = 18 – 20 g (can vary)
1 egg white (from large egg) = 30 – 35 (can vary)
1 cup of egg whites = 8.4 oz (240 g) about 6 – 8 egg whites from large eggs
1 cup water = 240mL = 8 fl oz (NOT OUNCES IN WEIGHT) = 225 grams (WEIGHT)
Milk & cream (half and half, table cream or heavy cream)
1 cup milk or cream = 240 mL / 215 g / 7.5 oz
There can be slight variations of up to about 5 grams.
1 cup corn syrup = 240 mL / 300 g / 10.5 oz
1 cup honey = 240 mL / 320 g / 11.3 oz